عنوان مقاله [English]
Public baths used to be part of the social life in the past, but reformers criticized them as modernism was beginning to penetrate the society. The reformers demanded hygienic standards to be enhanced at public baths, so that they would be congruent with modern lifestyle. Among such standards was the use of shower instead of khazinah (a large pool at public baths used for washing one's body). Meanwhile, the authorities at the municipality, who were in charge of the city's general issues, adopted a number of measures, by which they forced public bath owners to abide by such hygienic guidelines. Due to the opposition voiced by those people who used to go to public baths and did not want to use the shower instead of khazinah, the conflict lasted for a very long time with many vicissitudes in the meantime. The conflict encompassed the period between the middle period of Reza Shah's ruling and the 1340s (1961-1971). The present research refers to the press published during that era, the documents and the oral history, and explores the flow of this incident in Isfahan (as a case study). Thanks to the urban authorities' perseverance as well as the urban population’s public request, which was the result of public health level enhancement, the hygienization process was initiated. However, since the above-mentioned changes, though essential, were not completely congruent with cultural aspects in the corresponding society, they were not performed with ease, and were followed by a long-lasting period of conflicts and struggles. Ultimately, fundamental changes in the lifestyle and architecture of the urban buildings made feasible the existence of house bathrooms; thus, the issue of public bath and its related problems were removed from the social life of cities.