عنوان مقاله [English]
Emerging printing technology caused more access to information and its rapid flow between people. Researchers are trying to standardize local languages according to printing development. It caused new identity awareness among social groups. Before 1837, Persian was official, legal, commercial and cultural language in Indian subcontinent and was used by Muslim and Hindu elites. Furthermore, Indian Muslims used it for writing religious texts. While some historians assign falling of Persian and rising of Urdu to colonial language policies, some other are searching another reasons. It seems that although Persian power and prestige is related to Tiymurian political dominance, their falling doesn’t result in the end of Persian presence in India, because in the late 18th and 19th century, a new stage of Persian presence in India was begun. A long with emerging printing, understanding its power by Muslim religious scholars, first in Bengal and later in all over the subcontinent, resulted in huge use of it and founding printing houses, especially in the north part of India, first of all. The possibility of access to more addressees (that now, because of emerging printing, it is more easy) led them to “people’s language” (Urdu). The present paper tries to show this language shift (of Persian to Urdu) in the context of multilingual society of India in the 19th century. Finally this kind of language shit could weaken Persian status and strength Urdu which gradually was considered as a new linguistic and religious identity among the subcontinent Muslims.